Syn. Gastrotheca coronata Stejneger, 1911.
Known as Coronated treefrog, Crowned treefrog or Spiny-headed tree frog, Anotheca spinosa (Hylidae) is an arboreal frog, difficult to find, that lives in bromeliads and banana plants in forests of Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama.
The size of male is 68 mm and female 80 mm (SVL). This frog is a casque-headed hylid and is unmistakable with sharp pointed bony spines on the head and a huge tympanum. Skin is co-ossified to the skull. Juveniles lack the projections.
Color is dark brown above with a black venter and flanks bordered with white. The larvae are white on hatching, later becoming dark brown above and bluish-gray below as they mature .
The male attracts the female calling from tree holes, bamboo internodes containing water, or bromeliads. The eggs are laid in a hollow tree during the day. The fertilized eggs adhere to the wall of the hole or on the leaves of bromeliads, just above the water surface. The male and female out of the hole, the male can mate and back again with the female or he can occupy another hole or container and start calling again. 50-300 eggs are laid at a time, but only 1 to 25 larvae hatch after 6-7 days. Over the next 14 days, the female returns and puts other 10-30 unfertilized eggs, they serve as food for tadpoles. If a second clutch of fertilized eggs is done, the next larvae disappear within two days, apparently eaten by his older brothers. After 60-132 days, 1-16 tadpoles perform metamorphosis .
Photo credit: [Top] - [Bottom], both by ©Don Filipiak, taken in Rara Avis, Costa Rica.